Third Learning Event, 23rd of June 2022. Summary of presentations

Learning event on how to accelerate energy efficiency investments

State of the implementation of energy performance certificates in Poland.

Mr Andrzej Rajkiewicz

Key messages and learning

The situation regarding the implementation of energy performance certificates in Poland.

5 years ago, they were carried out as part of the Zebra 2020 project, with the Technical University of Vienna playing an important role. How are these energy performance certificates used in practice?

The survey of real estate agents shows the influencing factors when selecting a property. The main elements taken into account when choosing, buying/renting a property are, in order: location (99%), price (98%) and property size (96%). The cost of energy is in 10th place among all factors (57%) ranked as “rather important” and “definitely important”.

The survey of estate agents – rent over price, shows that the link between a high energy performance rating of a property and a higher price of a property exists, but is not very common.

Survey of real estate agents – problems in implementing energy efficiency improvements in buildings.

The main problems identified were a lack of financial incentives for property owners (57% of responses), insufficient information about the benefits (39% of responses) and low public involvement in energy transition issues (38% of responses);

It is recommended (in relation to the regression analysis carried out of the price surpluses arising from EPCs) that a key objective of the EPC policy should be to increase the degree to which energy efficiency is taken into account in decision-making in the housing market, the success of this objective can be measured by periodic regression analyses which, like this report, measure the level of capitalisation of energy efficiency in the market.

Recommendations in relation to the survey of real estate agents, proposals to improve the main objective of the EPC policy to enforce the mandatory presentation of EPCs during sale/lease procedures, to introduce better national standards or to put more emphasis on the presentation of the most relevant sustainability data for property owners that can influence property choice.

Obstacles to the use of EPCs may be less significant if the cost of improvements and the cost of displaying EPCs are reduced by state policies accompanied by awareness campaigns and a more equitable distribution of the benefits of energy savings among stakeholders (owners, tenants). Economic incentives for those who undertake energy saving measures, linked to well-designed awareness campaigns, are expected.

Energy Performance Certificates ( EPCs) in Poland - current status. Helping consumers to make informed choices about saving both energy and money in buildings.

Mr Jerzy Kwiatkowski

Key messages and learning

The presentation discussed the state of implementation of EPBD requirements. Issues that should be implemented in Poland were highlighted, such as the energy performance of a building in the form of a primary energy consumption indicator or recommendations for cost-optimal or cost-effective improvement of energy performance.  The recommendations contained in the energy performance certificate are technically feasible for a specific building and may include an estimate of the range of payback periods or costs and benefits during the economic life cycle of the building. It is indicated where the owner or tenant can obtain more detailed information, including on the economic viability of the recommendations included. A methodology for assessing the energy performance of a building in line with the national annexes to ISO 52003-1:2017.

Barriers to the implementation of an EPC in Poland – ZEBRA2020 were presented, where the main ones identified were the additional costs for owners (56% of indications), the practice of making unreliable energy performance certificates (52% of indications) and the incomprehensible form of the message for the client/not knowing what the result on the certificate means (51%). Additionally, deficiencies or insufficient knowledge of the purchaser (‘customer awareness’) (49% of indications) and unnecessary bureaucracy or additional procedure (45% of indications) were indicated.

Evaluation and future of the CHP system in Poland.

The main one is considered to be the lack of energy classes – the slider does not allow to determine the energy class of the building. As a second, the slider is not an unambiguous indicator – which does not allow comparison with other buildings. Illegible graphic design and too much additional information, as well as the lack of estimated costs for the use of the building were listed as the next.

CHP in Poland – Formal requirements
A certificate is made in the case of a building or part of a building disposed of on the basis of a contract of sale of a co-operative ownership, right to rented premises or whose usable area occupied by the judiciary, prosecutor’s office and public administration authorities exceeds 250 m2 and in which services are provided to the public.

Register of CHEs in Poland
The Minister for Construction maintains a central register of the energy performance of buildings, which includes lists of persons authorised to draw up energy performance certificates or persons authorised to inspect the heating system or air-conditioning system. It also holds energy performance certificates and inspection protocols for the heating system or air-conditioning system.

Verification of EPCs in Poland
The Minister for Construction, verifies the energy performance certificates and the protocols from the inspection of the heating system or the air-conditioning system, with regard to the correctness and reliability of their preparation and taking into account technical and construction regulations and the principles of technical knowledge.

Unfortunately, the data about the EPC of buildings from the register is not publicly available!
In summary, the implementation of CHE in Poland is only partial. There is no public awareness of the importance of CE and no understanding of CE by the end user. There is no proper verification of the correctness of the CE performance, which requires a thorough change not only at the level of the CE system, but also of the end-user awareness of the importance of CE.

X-Tendo - a summary of the new ŚChE functionalities developed in the project.

Mr Jerzy Kwiatkowski, NAPE S.A. X-Tendo

Key messages and learning

The X-tendo project, is an extension of energy performance assessment and certification through a modular approach. Its implementation is set for the period 2019-2022. Funding is to be handled by the European Commission (Horizon 2020 Programme) and the Vienna University of Technology is to be the main coordinator.

The X-tendo team consists of 13 partners in 10 countries and nine test countries (e.g. Austria, Denmark, Estonia, Greece or Poland).

The main objective of the X-tendo project is to support public authorities in improving the compliance, reliability and usability of energy performance certificates (EPCs) for buildings. As a second objective, it has been set to demonstrate and encourage the introduction of 10 innovative functionalities within the CHE system. Not forgetting to improve the reliability, usability of practices and tools related to the next generation of CHEs.

The pillars of the X-tendo project are stakeholder involvement (understanding of CHE end users, understanding of needs, awareness development), tool development (modular approach with 10 functionalities, good practice examples, instructions for calculation methods, calculation tools) and tool testing (tests in different European countries, different types of tests: building, system, utility).

Innovative indicators were presented, which include smart readiness indication, real energy consumption, outdoor air pollution and disctrict energy systems.

EPC databases, building logbooks, tailored recommendations and financing options are presented as innovative data processing approaches.

Cross evaluation of energy performance certificates in Europe

Karolina Junak – KAPE S.A. and Kaj L. Petersen – ECNet

Key messages and learning

Developed on 140 buildings, the project aims to create an EPC community forum with an online knowledge exchange centre, a collection of building data, certificate results and, where possible, measured building performance results. Introduce guidelines for the design of people-centred EPCs, a tool for the use of data and the marketing of new EPCs. In doing so, collect technical data for the next generation of EPCs (to reduce the performance gap, implement new KPIs, present renovation measures to the building owner and verify and control the quality of EPCs).

The study is to have three rounds in which the first, one with existing EPC procedures: Each team in each country will use their existing EPC procedures to assess buildings in other countries (accuracy, gaps, robustness, etc.) The second and third rounds will use EPC procedures available from recent initiatives: QualDeEPC, U-CERT, X-tendo, ePANACEA, E-DYCE, D^2EPC and EPC-RECAST.

In the study, the alignment of EPCs with the needs of users and investors can make a difference to energy efficiency financing. Increasing the value of EPCs for potential investors – establishing a dialogue with stakeholders to understand the information needed to make a decision on a potential investment or standardised guidelines and instructions on how to implement the data needed for investors in next-generation EPCs – are just some of them.

Testing in phase 1:

The data entry of the first building is currently underway, both in Denmark and Poland. The main challenges are:

  • Difference in software,
  • Data entry methods,
  • Drawing documentation,
  • Climatic data,
  • Time

Importantly DK tests 4 Polish buildings and 3 Croatian buildings (in Danish national software), Poland tests 5 Danish buildings, 3 British buildings and 1 Austrian building. Croatia is testing 2 Danish buildings. UK and Austria are each testing 1 Polish building.

State of the green -Energy renovation of buildings

Gry Klitmose Holm, State of Green

Key messages and learning

Learning event Polish-Danish experience with energy performance certificates.
Thematic areas covered in the discussion are the regulatory framework from a Danish and EU perspective, primarily case-based with a public and private perspective. Holistic approaches to energy retrofits and smart energy systems. Partnership and financing models were discussed as well as the digitalisation of the whole project.

The main objective was to focus on both the supply and demand side of energy renovation encouraging local investment.

How has Denmark increased energy efficiency in buildings?

Anne Svendsen, Danish Energy Agency

Key messages and learning

Above all, testing the efficiency of installations before they are used, funding energy renovation of private homes, funding renovation of public buildings or information for homeowners, craftsmen and consultants on EE renovation have helped.

EE in buildings, the future is the new building code in 2023, LCA or energy renovation of buildings. Energy renovation of state and municipal buildings (financial pool for municipalities and regions), flexibility, a subsidy programme for heat pumps or subscription heat pumps are just some of the solutions proposed.

The new Building Code would apply to all new (heated) buildings and to major renovations in existing buildings. It would allow for more efficient heating, hot water, ventilation and cooling systems (pumps, fans, ventilation systems, gas boilers, etc.). Individual temperature control in all rooms (thermostatic valves) and functional testing of technical installations (building management system, heating systems including hydraulic balancing of the heating system, ventilation systems and lighting systems in commercial buildings) are just some of the solutions proposed.

A further amendment to the Danish Building Code would take into account life cycle assessment (LCA), the recording and documentation of resource (energy) use on site, life cycle costs (LCC) or the development of an operation and maintenance plan to maintain the indoor climate. A Subsidy Scheme would also be introduced.

Renovating affordable housing will help reduce energy costs, improve living conditions and create jobs. Funding for energy renovation of affordable housing, also with a focus on recycling building materials.

Energy Renewal 2020-2030 specifies that all state-owned buildings must achieve a specific savings target by 2030. Funded but non-state-owned buildings (e.g. secondary schools, universities and museums), the requirement is to reduce energy demand by 10 per cent between 2020 and 2030. The government provides subsidised financing and low-cost loans for energy-saving measures in regional and municipal buildings.

Amendments to the EPBD

Jerzy Kwiatkowski, NAPE

Key messages and learning

The scope of the Directive is mainly a common general framework for the calculation methodology of the integrated energy performance of buildings and building units. The application of minimum energy performance requirements to new buildings and new building modules.  But also the application of minimum energy performance standards to existing buildings and existing building modules, or renovation passports. It is also worth bearing in mind national plans for the renovation of buildings or sustainable mobility infrastructures in and around buildings.

Important new concepts in the directive such as zero-emission building, near-zero energy building or minimum energy performance standards are presented.

EPBD – New buildings.
Member States shall ensure that new buildings are zero-emission buildings in accordance with Annex III according to the following timetable. Thus, from 1 January 2027. – new buildings occupied or owned by public authorities; and from 1 January 2030. – all new buildings. So that they are all at least near-zero energy buildings and meet minimum energy performance requirements. Member States shall ensure that the life cycle global warming potential is calculated in accordance with Annex 3.

EPBD – Existing buildings.
Supplement the energy performance requirements for buildings undergoing major renovation (in Polish terms, this concept should be equated with reconstruction or construction work involving insulation of the building, covering more than 25% of the surface of the building envelope of that building), with new ones on ensuring an appropriate energy standard (minimum energy performance standards) for individual building types in subsequent years.

EPBD – Existing buildings – Renovation passports.
By 31 December 2024, Member States shall introduce a system of renovation passports based on a common framework established by 31 December 2023. The passport shall be issued by a qualified expert after an on-site inspection of the building. It shall contain a plan of renovation steps to transform the building into a zero-carbon building in 2050. It shall indicate the expected benefits in terms of energy savings, greenhouse gas emissions and related cost savings and health and comfort benefits. In addition, it provides information on possible financial and technical support.

EPBD – Technical schemes.
Member States require zero-emission buildings to be equipped with measurement and control devices to monitor and regulate indoor air quality. In existing buildings, the installation of such equipment is required where technically and economically feasible in case the building undergoes major renovation.

EPBD – Infrastructure for sustainable electromobility.
For new non-residential buildings and non-residential buildings undergoing major renovation with more than five parking spaces, Member States shall ensure the installation of at least one charging point, the installation of embedded cabling for each parking space and at least one bicycle parking space for each car parking space.

By 31 December 2025 at the latest, the energy performance certificate must comply with the model. The certificate shall specify the energy performance class of the building on a closed scale. Member States shall ensure a common visual identification of certificates, ensure the quality, reliability and affordability of energy performance certificates. Member States shall make available simplified procedures for updating the certificate in the case of retrofitting of single elements only. The obligation to have digital certificates is extended (in addition to newly constructed buildings) to buildings undergoing major renovation,

EPBD – CHP databases.
Creation of a national publicly accessible database on the energy performance of buildings, which enables the collection of data and the overall energy performance of the national building stock. The scope of the database should include data on certificates, inspections, building renovation passports, smart grid readiness rate of buildings and calculated or metered energy consumption of certified buildings. The database is intended to provide building owners, tenants and managers as well as financial institutions with access to the full certificate for the buildings in their investment portfolio.

In summary, there is a need to accelerate changes to the legislation on the energy efficiency of buildings and some of the changes may be difficult to implement. The proposed changes may increase the cost of producing an energy performance certificate, but may not necessarily improve the reliability and usefulness of energy performance certificates.

Energy-efficient buildings

Prof Michał Pomianowski, Aalborg University

Key messages and learning

The aim is to provide a methodology for dynamic building certification based on publicly available resources and tools, to develop an integration framework and provide accurate and clear feedback to the user, to increase user awareness of building performance; the user needs to receive information in a clear and concise way, in time for interventions (tenants, owners, authorities).

Applying this methodology to buildings will produce key results, but all monitoring activities have been more demanding than anticipated:

  • EPC’s move from static to dynamic tools leads to a disaggregation of KPIs,
  • Simplification of the models (zoning) seems to be more reliable for energy calculations than for comfort calculations,
  • The use of smart meters (heat meters) can contribute to a better understanding and performance of the building,
  • Evaluation of heat consumption (domestic hot water / space heating).

Final part: Discussion on EPC status, plans and further development in Poland and Denmark.

Moderator: Szymon Firląg

Participants: Jerzy Kwiatkowski (NAPE), Piotr Krysik (KAPE), Kaj Petersen (ECNet), Nils Daugaard (ECNet), Michał Pomianowski (Aalborg Universitet) and Anne Svendsen (Danish Energy Agency)

Discussion was guided by main question:

  • How EPC are included/support/enhance the financing of energy efficiency in Denmark and in Poland ?

Denmark:  It has been a long way to develop EPC’s in the form that is user friendly and be integrated and used by financial sector.

Digitalization of EPC database is a useful toll for planning and guidance for renovation programmes f.e. in municipalities.

What is the most important, since 2020 EPC is a requirement to receive funding

Poland: EPC’s in Poland shows recommendations but in practice those are general description, not detailed what is not so helpful. There is no financial support programme which uses EPC in it’s scheme. Financial programmes that already exists could use EPC’s in order to check if the given measure is feasible from economic point of view. Poland should follow Danish example which is also the path to implement EPBD recommendations.

  • Which features developed under XTendo project are/can be implemented in Denmark/Poland?

Denmark: XTendo features have integrated in some extend. EPC has been modified in consultation with building owners to be more understandable. Additional Financial sector was also engaged in this consultation to better understand the information in EPC and to use it in practice. Within RB we want to enhance usage of EPC’s in financial instruments. Standardized and stronger approach is needed as for now there are different incentives used by banks on the basis of EPC.

Poland: Xtendo project started before the proposed changes of EPBD. As for now, a lot of features are in line with proposed new EPBD. Most of the features can be implemented in polish system. For example Ministry of Development and Technology was considering to include the emission of particular 2,5 or 10 in order to have indicators of smog development. Now we can see it in EPBD and such feature is in XTendo project and it’s methodology could be used in Poland.

  • Which changes in EPBD will affect EPC in Denmark/Poland?

Poland: Implementation of EPBD changes will affect both: way of presenting and methodology of calculation. Currently it is presented by energy bars – this way is not easy to interpret. In future EPC will have to be presented by energy performance classes – in Poland we know them from household appliances and electronics but the building classes will be linked to non-renewable  primary energy which can be confusing without connecting those with energy costs. It will be an unofficial requirement but we hope in future it will change for better.

In EU, EPBD for member states:

Draft version of EPBD focuses more on gas emission ( co2) and new version of visual identity on scale from A to G – where A is zero emission building, and G should represent 15/20% of worst performing building with respect to whole national stock. More focus is put on using EPC to monitor what is the energy performance of national building stock. From 2025 EU states are expected to present national renovation programmes. Those should be connected to current situation of building stock which is connected  to EPC database.

Assessment of building stock on the bases of EPC for buildings that are being sold or rented and are valid for 10 years. There is a recommendation to decrease it in order to track changes in the building stock what will provide more up to data.

Implementation of Building passport, will help to track and motivation the users for deep energy renovation. It can be a useful monitoring tool that will help strategic planning and measures that have to be implements according to 2050 requirements in EU.

  • What are the possibilities and barriers to implement the new functionalities/features (XTendo and EPBD) into national certification systems?

Denmark: Main barriers is to create trust for EPC among it’s. There are still challenges how EPC can be used within the financial sector, when the building owner is applying for financial support. Denmark need to combine it with ongoing the gas crises, and exclude gas and oil boilers from building stock. Usage of fossil fuels 2030 all out in Denmark. Good strategy is needed and it should be in connection with renovation strategies.

Poland: Education of building experts and energy experts is needed in order to transform such number of buildings. New indicators of EPC might increase its prices. New indicators are not easy to calculate f.e. global warming potential. In Poland there are no official government data on greenhouse gasses ( besides CO2). If the global warming potential factor is required the regulations will have to refer to some official database that will need to be developed.


  • What are the profits from open EPC database in Denmark?

Customers can see the condition of the building before purchase, municipalities can use it for planning tools and financial sector can use it to adjust or create financial schemes.

More detailed information on EPC’s which are available on request are used for research purposes and clustering information data from different sources.  

  • How EPC’s are useful in financing in Denmark? If it is used for de-risking investments?

It is going to be exploited further in CrossCerth Project  to make it more useful and attractive for financial sector – building information passport is the basis of de-risking the investments.

Danish banks are observing and analysing the usage and potential that in EPC’s